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The 2018 UK Workplace Stress Survey
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Start on. Show related SlideShares at end. WordPress Shortcode. Patel Jay , jayu Published in: Education. Full Name Comment goes here. Are you sure you want to Yes No. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Chapter 08 organizational change and stress management 1. It is often termed as first order change. For example, the individual is able to perform a certain amount of work, but much more is required, or on the other hand no work at all is offered. Quantitative overload. Too much to do, time pressure and repetitive work-flow.
This is to a great extent the typical feature of mass production technology and routinized office work. Qualitative underload. Too narrow and one-sided job content, lack of stimulus variation, no demands on creativity or problem- solving, or low opportunities for social interaction.
Chapter 34 - Psychosocial and Organizational Factors
These jobs seem to become more common with suboptimally designed automation and increased use of computers in both offices and manufacturing even though there may be instances of the opposite. Role conflicts. Everybody occupies several roles concurrently. We are the superiors of some people and the subordinates of others.
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We are children, parents, marital partners, friends and members of clubs or trade unions. Conflicts easily arise among our various roles and are often stress evoking, as when, for instance, demands at work clash with those from a sick parent or child or when a supervisor is divided between loyalty to superiors and to fellow workers and subordinates. When someone else decides what to do, when and how; for example, in relation to work pace and working methods, when the worker has no influence, no control, no say.
Or when there is uncertainty or lack of any obvious structure in the work situation. Physical stressors. Such factors can influence the worker both physically and chemically, for example, direct effects on the brain of organic solvents. Secondary psychosocial effects can also originate from the distress caused by, say, odours, glare, noise, extremes of air temperature or humidity and so on.
Finally, real life conditions at work and outside work usually imply a combination of many exposures. These might become superimposed on each other in an additive or synergistic way. Some of the specific stressors in industry merit special discussion, namely those characteristic of:. Mass production technology. Over the past century work has become fragmented in many workplaces, changing from a well defined job activity with a distinct and recognized end-product, into numerous narrow and highly specified subunits which bear little apparent relation to the end-product.
The growing size of many factory units has tended to result in a long chain of command between management and the individual workers, accentuating remoteness between the two groups. The worker also becomes remote from the consumer, since rapid elaborations for marketing, distribution and selling interpose many steps between the producer and the consumer. Mass production, thus, normally involves not just a pronounced fragmentation of the work process but also a decrease in worker control of the process. This is partly because work organization, work content and work pace are determined by the machine system.
All these factors usually result in monotony, social isolation, lack of freedom and time pressure, with possible long-term effects on health and well-being.sefsacktratenar.tk
Organisation Theory & Behaviour
Mass production, moreover, favours the introduction of piece rates. Another possible effect is that the employee, bent on raising output and earnings, infringes safety regulations thereby increasing the risk of occupational disease and of accidents to oneself and others e. Highly automated work processes. In automated work the repetitive, manual elements are taken over by machines, and the workers are left with mainly supervisory, monitoring and controlling functions.
This kind of work is generally rather skilled, not regulated in detail and the worker is free to move about. Accordingly, the introduction of automation eliminates many of the disadvantages of the mass-production technology. However, this holds true mainly for those stages of automation where the operator is indeed assisted by the computer and maintains some control over its services.
If, however, operator skills and knowledge are gradually taken over by the computer - a likely development if decision making is left to economists and technologists - a new impoverishment of work may result, with a re-introduction of monotony, social isolation and lack of control. It is well documented that the ability to detect critical signals declines rapidly even during the first half-hour in a monotonous environment.
This may add to the strain inherent in the awareness that temporary inattention and even a slight error could have extensive economic and other disastrous consequences. Other critical aspects of process control are associated with very special demands on mental skill. The operators are concerned with symbols, abstract signals on instrument arrays and are not in touch with the actual product of their work. Shift work. In the case of shift work, rhythmical biological changes do not necessarily coincide with corresponding environmental demands.
A further complication arises because workers usually live in a social environment which is not designed for the needs of shift workers. Last but not least, shift workers must often adapt to regular or irregular changes in environmental demands, as in the case of rotating shifts. In the sections that follow, psychosocial stressors are analysed in greater detail with respect to their sources in modern work systems and technologies, and with respect to their assessment and control. Here, the controllability of the stressor is very important, and becomes more important as we develop ever more complex and integrated social organizations, with ever more complex limitations on individual behaviour.
It has mainly been used in epidemiological studies of chronic disease, such as coronary heart disease. Pedagogically, it is a simple model which can help to demonstrate clearly several important issues relevant for social policy discussions of occupational health and safety:.
The model implies alternative, health-promoting perspectives on work organization which emphasize broad skills and participation for workers, and which may also bring economic advantages for innovative manufacturing and in service industries because of the increased possibilities for learning and participation. These undesirable stress-like reactions, which result when arousal is combined with restricted opportunities for action or coping with the stressor, are referred to as psychological strain the term stress is not used at this point as it is defined differently by many groups.
For example, the assembly-line worker has almost every behaviour rigidly constrained. Kerckhoff and Back describe garment workers under heavy deadline pressure and the subsequent threat of layoff. They conclude that when the actions normally needed to cope with job pressures cannot be taken, the most severe behavioural symptoms of strain occur fainting, hysteria, social contagion. This implies a needed expansion of the model to include social relations and social support. In modern organizational hierarchies, the highest levels of knowledge legitimate the exercise of the highest levels of authority, and workers with limited-breadth, specialized tasks are coordinated by managers with higher authority levels.
Skill discretion and authority over decisions are so closely related theoretically and empirically that they are often combined. The physical demands of work are not included although psychological arousal comes with physical exertion. Other components of psychological job demands are stressors arising from personal conflicts. Fear of losing a job or skill obsolescence may obviously be a contributor. While simple measures of working hours, in moderate ranges, do not seem to strongly predict illness, one such measure, shiftwork - especially rotating shiftwork, is associated with substantial social problems as well as increased illness.
When control on the job is high, and psychological demands are also high, but not overwhelming figure The model also predicts that the growth and learning stimuli of these settings, when they occur in a job context, are conducive to high productivity. The potential activity level in the future will be raised because of the expanded range of solutions to environmental challenges, yielding an increase in motivation.
Evidence shows that disengagement from leisure and political activity outside the job appear to increase over time in such jobs Karasek and Theorell Multiplicative interactions for the axes is too restrictive a test for most sample sizes. The distinction between decision latitude and psychological stressors must be retained because the model predicts both learning and job strain - from two different combinations of demands and control which are not simply mathematically additive.
The addition clearly acknowledges the need of any theory of job stress to assess social relations at the workplace Karasek and Theorell ; Johnson and Hall Changes in social relations between workers i. However, a full theoretical treatment of the impact of social relations on both job stress and behaviour is a very complex problem which needs further work. The associations with measures of co-worker and supervisor interactions and chronic disease are less consistent than for decision latitude, and social relations can strongly increase, as well as decrease, the nervous system arousal that may be the risk-inducing link between social situation and illness.
Job characteristics can be displayed in a four quadrant diagram using the average job characteristics of occupations in the US Census occupation codes Karasek and Theorell Female-dominated occupations are frequent garment stitchers, waitresses, telephone operators and other office automation workers. Thus, executives and professionals have a moderate level of stress, and not the highest level of stress, as popular belief often holds.
However, the implication here is that executives could reduce their stress if they made fewer decisions, and lower status workers would be better off with more decision opportunities, so that all groups could be better off with a more equal share of decision power. Men are more likely than women to have high control over their work process at the task level, with a difference as great as wage differentials Karasek and Theorell Another major gender difference is the negative correlation between decision latitude and demands for women: women with low control also have higher job demands.
This means that women are several times as likely to hold high strain jobs in the full working population. Thus, it falls outside the boundaries of a number of established scientific traditions from which it has gained contributions or with which it is often contrasted: mental health epidemiology and sociology, and stress physiology, cognitive psychology and personality psychology. In addition, linkage to macro social organizational and political economic issues, such as social class, have also been proposed.
These theoretical integrations and contrasts with other theories are discussed below at several levels. The linkages below provide the background for an extended set of scientific hypotheses. One area of stress theory grows out of the currently popular field of cognitive psychology. The central tenet of the cognitive model of human psychological functioning is that it is the processes of perception and interpretation of the external world that determine the development of psychological states in the individual.
Mental workload is defined as the total information load that the worker is required to perceive and interpret while performing job tasks Sanders and McCormick ; Wickens This model has enjoyed great currency since modelling human mental functions in the same rough conceptual model as modern computers utilize, and thus fits an engineering conception of work design. This model makes us aware of the importance of information overloads, communication difficulties and memory problems. There is little discussion of how either negative emotions, nor learning-based behaviour except for Bandura, above arise in common adult social situations.
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